Lampang City Municipality was originally a sanitary district before being converted into a town municipality on March 25, 1935, in accordance with a Royal Decree on town municipality establishment. During that period, the municipality had a total area of 10.86 km2, covering 4 sub-districts, including Suan Dok, Wiang Nuea, Hua Wiang, and Sob Tui. On October 24, 1991, a Royal Decree was issued to enlarge the municipal area to 22.17 km2, adding a total area of 11.31 km2 to the municipality. As a result, another 4 sub-districts were included following the extension of municipal boundaries, namely Bo Haeo (1.16 km2), Chompoo (3.80 km2), Phrabat (6.13 km2), and Pichai (0.22 km2). On November 10, 1999, Lampang Town Municipality was converted into Lampang City Municipality according to a Royal Decree (published in the Royal Gazette, Royal Decree Category, Book No. 116, Section 10 A.), effective from November 11, 1999, onwards. Therefore, the area of administration involves 8 sub-districts, including the former 4 sub-districts and some parts of Bo Haeo, Chompoo, Phrabat and Pichai Sub-districts, totaling 22.7 km2. Lampang City Municipality is the second of its kind among the upper northern Thailand following Chiang Mai City Municipality.
The symbol of Lampang City Municipality is a white cock, which is also used in the logo of Lampang Province. According to the local folklore Legend of the 5 Hermits, Lampang was once known as Kuk-kut-ta-na-khon, which translates as “the City of White Cock”. Legend has it that after the Lord Buddha attained enlightenment, he traversed the area called Sam-pha-kum-pa-si-nee—believed to be located in the present-day Lampang Province. At the time, God Indra impersonated a white cock and woke the townspeople to offer alms to the Lord Buddha who, in return of their generosity, prophesied that this area would later become a prosperous city. After that, a city was built in this area and named “Kuk-kut-ta-na-khon”— the City of White Cock.
Lampang City Municipality is located on 246 Chatchai Street, Sob Tui Sub-district, Muang Lampang District, Lampang Province. The distance from Bangkok as measured from Thailand Route 1 or Phahonyothin Road is approximately 602 km, or 625 km of rail line. It is close to 7 other provinces, namely:
North: Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, and Phayao
East: Phrae, Sukhothai
The area of Lampang City Municipality is 22.17 km2, consisting of 8 sub-districts.
- Since March 25, 1935, the municipal area was 10.86 km2, which includes 4 sub-districts, namely Suan Dok, Wiang Nuea, Hua Wiang, and Sob Tui.
- On October 24, 1991, the Royal Decree was issued to change the boundary of Lampang City Municipality by expanding it for 11.31 km2. Hence, the total area after the extension is 22.17 km2. It now consists of 8 sub-districts, including the former 4 sub-districts and some parts of Bo Haeo, Chompoo, Phrabat, and Pichai Sub-districts. Details are provided below.
Sub-district area (original)
Total area (km2)
Some parts of sub-district (new)
Total area (km2)
1. Bo Haeo
The total area is 22.17 km2.
Neighboring administrative entities
Lampang City Municipality is a part of Muang District, Lampang Province. This area is a plain and lowland along the waterfront, located in the middle of a basin landform or the heart of Lampang Province. The municipal district can be divided into 2 sides:
- The left side consists of 6 sub-districts, including Suan Dok, Hua Wiang, Sob Toi, Chompoo, Phrabat, and Pichai;
- The Right side consists of Wiang Nuea and Bo Haeo Sub-districts. Most area is lowland of both new and old alluvial soil, which is suitable for cultivation due to its fertility and high quality. Nevertheless, Lampang City Municipality is situated in the city center or urban area. Therefore, the area is mostly used for residence and commercial building. Only some parts outside the city are agricultural areas such as Phrabat and Chompoo Sub-districts. The total area of Lampang City Municipality is 22.17 km2, with the following neighboring sub-districts:
North: Pichai Sub-district
East: Prabat and Pichai Sub-districts
West: Bo Haeo and Chompoo Sub-districts
South: Phrabat Sub-district
In general, the local economic conditions of the community within Lampang City Municipality mainly involve the production of goods and services, as well as industrial administration. The community of Lampang City Municipality is the center of public management, commerce, and tourism service, while being seen as the industrial development area of Lampang Province. As part of Lampang City Municipality, the two main sub-districts that are considered the hub of trade and service are Sob Tui and Suan Dok Sub-districts. Sob Tui Sub-district is primarily involved in the wholesale trade of agricultural products, general appliances, and construction materials. Another old trading area of the city is Suan Dok and Hua Wiang Sub-districts where the city’s biggest retail distributors can be found. The products available in these sub-districts are mostly consumables, while commercial areas can also be found, including fresh market, clothes market, as well as shopping malls, hotels, entertainment venues, and banks. This area boasts a high rate of expansion and plays an important role in future area development.
Characteristics of the local community
The majority of the population spread out in the municipal district. The community of Lampang City Municipality lives along the banks of Wang River. Moreover, the community is tightly clustered in 4 main areas, including
- Area towards the southern side of the city’s moat—central business district of the community.
- Area in front of Nakhon Lampang Railway Station is mainly commercial and residential.
- Northern side of Wang River and inside the moat, including Pong Sanuk Road and Ratsadapisek Road, are residential areas.
- Chompoo Sub-district is a ceramic production and residential area.
Lampang City Municipality is a local administrative organization in an urban area. It is 268.60 meters above mean sea level. The area can be described as a plain or lowland along the waterfront, situated in the middle of a basin landform in which the northern area of Wang River is higher than the southern area; thus exhibits steeper slope towards the river. This river flows in a northeast-southwest orientation, dividing the city into 2 sides. The left side consists of 6 sub-districts, namely Suan Dok, Hua Wiang, Sob Tui, Chompoo, Prhabat, and Pichai. The right side consists of Wiang Nuea and Bo Haeo Sub-districts. Most areas are lowlands of old and new alluvial soils, which are suitable for cultivation due to its fertility and high quality.
In the past, Wiang Nuea and Hua Wiang Sub-districts were the location of an ancient city of Khelang Nakhon I-III, which are over 1,300 years old. Today, there are ancient remains that can be found around this area such as pagoda, ancient city wall, and old moat.
As Lampang Province is located in a basin landform, the weather is hot and dry all year long. The climate can be characterized into 3 seasons:
Summer typically starts from March and lasts until May. This is when the weather is hot and dry, while the heat reaches its peak in April.
Rainy season starts from May.
Winter starts from November to February. The temperature usually drops to its lowest in January.
Rainfall and Temperature Statistics as measured in Muang District, Lampang Province (between 1 January and 31 December 2012)
115.9 millimeters (on 6 May 12)
0.0 millimeter (in November)
Number of Days with Rainfall
39 Celsius (on 26 Apr 12)
9.7 Celsius (on 17 Jan 12)
In 2012, Lampang Province had the highest record of rainfall of 115.9 millimeters in May and the lowest rainfall of 0.0 millimeters in November. The highest temperature was 39 Celsius in April, while the lowest temperature was 9.7 Celsius in January.
Local administration is when the central government gives or delegates power to a local administrative organization in order to promote participation from people regarding the governing of community and local area. There is a responsible organization, which has freedom of decision as well as officers and operational budget that is separate from provincial administration. Even though the local administrative organization has sovereignty, it is still controlled by the central government under appropriate approaches.
Local administration is the root of democracy at a national level because it is the institution which promotes political participation among the general public, creating the sense of ownership over their own places of residence. This is to create protection and responsibility toward the local community so that people perceive democracy positively. Local administration takes many forms, but the one that resonates the most with national administration is the municipality.
An organization that acts as a legal person, established by the law which clearly states the administrative boundaries. It has managing freedom as well as budget and income for itself. The local people elect all or some directors of the organization.
Objectives of local administration
- Constitutes effective management
- Save costs
- Reduce the responsibility of the central government
- Train and educate people about democracy
The importance of local administration
- Assist in solving problems as the local people know the issues better than outsiders
- People participates in self administration, which is equivalent to training people to learn about national administration
- Reduce financial burden and manpower
- If the local area is strong and stable, people will believe in the management and its responsibility towards them
- Despite reducing the burden of the local government, it also teaches people about self-administration
- To prevent management mistakes of the local administrative organization, which may affect the country
- To ensure the management meets the standard of the central government
- To ensure the management is in harmony with national policy
- By law
- By investigation
- By eliminating local councils
- By subsidy allocation
- By setting the public finance regulations
- By planning process that is in harmony with the national plan
Managing local government services in the form of municipality
Municipality is one form of local administrative organization in Thailand. Today, the Municipal Act B.E. 2496 stipulates that the municipality is a legal person. There are three types of municipality including district municipality, town municipality, and city municipality.
Establishment of municipality
In making any local area a district municipality, the law does not define a specific number of population and the level of population density. However, it suggests that the local area must have appropriate level of population density and sufficient income to fulfill its duty as stipulated by the law. In practice, the local area that can potentially become district municipality is the former sanitary district of local administrative organization. The Ministry of Interior received an Act, B.E. 2542 to change the status of sanitary district to municipality, which came into effect on May 25, 1999, onwards. As a result, all sanitary districts, which were local administrative organizations, were converted to district municipalities.
Any area can be promoted to a town municipality under the following circumstances. Area, which is the location of city hall, can become a town municipality without having to consider any other rules. However, if the local area is not the location of a city hall, it needs to have the population of more than 10,000 people and sufficient income to fulfill its duty as stipulated by the law to be able to establish a town municipality.
The area can be promoted to a city municipality if it has more than 50,000 people and sufficient income to fulfill its duty as stipulated by the law.
Most residents are dispersed in the municipal district. The community of Lampang City Municipality lives along the banks of Wang River and is tightly clustered in 4 areas as follows.
- The southern side of city moat is the central business district of the community;
- Area in front of Nakhon Lampang Railway Station is commercial and residential;
- The northern side of Wang River and inside the city moat, including Pong Sanuk Road and Ratsadapisek Road, are residential area;
- Chompoo Sub-district is a ceramic production and residential area.
The community of Lampang City Municipality has organized sub-communities according to the policy of the Ministry of Interior to promote public participation in administration, protection, solution finding, and community development for a better quality of life. There are a total of 41 sub-communities.
Budget of Lampang City Municipality
Annual budget of the municipality must be issued in the municipal law. If the budget is not included in the law by the New Year, the municipality has to use the budget of the previous year. In the case of insufficient fund as approved in the annual budget or having the necessity to create new income or expense during the year, the municipal law has to state the additional budget according to the Municipal Act B.E. 2496. The Act states the following sources of income for Lampang City Municipality.
- Taxation as stated by the law
- Administrative fee, License fee, and Fine as stated by the law
- Income from the asset of the municipality
- Income from public utility and municipal enterprises
- Bonds or Loans as stated by the law
- Loans from the ministry, bureau, department, organization, or other legal entities
- Support from the government or Provincial Administrative Organization
- Money and other assets as offered by other parties
- Other revenues as stated by the law
Through the analysis of the municipal law of Lampang City Municipality from 2004 to 2009, it was found that the income of Lampang City Municipality was approximately 400 million baht. The majority of revenue came from government subsidies, followed by taxes that the government allocated. However, revenues from taxes of Lampang City Municipality, which were estimated to be over 200 million baht, had the tendency to decline. For example, in 2007, the estimation of tax revenue was 216,731,000 baht, but the actual amount received was 214,296,938.20 baht. In 2008, the estimation was as high as 221,630,000 baht, but income from taxes was only 204,156, 019.43 baht, below the prediction for over 10 million baht. Nevertheless, after examining the details of tax revenue, the reduction was caused by the smaller proportion of income gained from taxes as managed by the government. Also, Lampang City Municipality did not earn revenues from butchery tax.
(Income Budget of Lampang City Municipality for fiscal years 2004-2009)
Through the analysis of municipal law of Lampang City Municipality from 2004 to 2008, it was found that the expense of Lampang City Municipality was between 300 and 500 million baht. Most expenses were used as a subsidy both in general and for specific purpose. Over 60 percent of specific subsidies were allocated to community and social services and there was a high possibility that the municipality will increase the expense budget. However, the expense for building community strength was very low. In 2004, the municipality spent only 0.82 percent of the total expense for this matter, but the spending had been increased after that. In 2004 and 2007, expenses for community and social services were mostly allocated to housing and community for more than 40 percent. Even though these expenses were as high as 45.69 percent in 2004, they decreased steadily during year 2007 to year 2009.
(Expense Budget according to categories of Lampang City Municipality for fiscal years 2004-2008)
Security Management to protect lives and assets
Criminal records in the territory of Lampang City Municipality
From the statistical report of five groups of criminal cases obtained from Muang Lampang Police Station, which has the responsibility of protecting lives and assets for those living in the municipal district, the data shows that there are a total of 2,681 cases that have happened. Of this figure, the police made an arrest for 1,004 cases and 1,631 people. However, there were 32 remaining cases of 32 people. Compared to 2007, it was found that:
Group 1 Serious offences reduced by 2 cases;
Group 2 Offences against life, body, and gender increased by 4 cases;
Group 3 Offences of damage to property increased by 24 cases;
Group 4 Interesting case increased by 18 cases;
Group 5 Case in which public sector is the victim of crime increased by 44 cases.
<<Statistics on criminal cases>>
Group/Organization dedicated to protect lives and assets
Groups or Organizations dedicated to protect lives and assets under the management and support of Lampang City Municipality consist of 2 main groups: (1) Civil Defence Volunteer, which is governed by Lampang City Municipality under Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Administration, Office of the Deputy Lampang City Municipalit; (2) Civil Defence Volunteer Foundation of Lampang City Municipality, which is a joint organization funded and supported by the municipality in protecting lives and assets.
- Civil Defence Volunteer has the power and the duty as stated in the ministerial rule of the Ministry of Interior for Civil Defence Volunteer B.E. 2547. It is managed by Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Administration, Lampang City Municipality, Office of the Deputy Lampang City Municipality. Civil Defence Volunteer was first established in 1990 and has existed for 18 years until today. Currently, Civil Defence Volunteer has 1,219 officers. It received annual budget of 200,000 baht in training 27 volunteers during the year 2008. The budget for the year 2009 was 100,000 baht, which were allocated specifically for training 50 volunteers. The management is the responsibility of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Center, Office of the Deputy Lampang City Municipality.
- Civil Defence Volunteer Foundation of Lampang City Municipality
Lampang City Municipality had trained Civil Defence Volunteer batch 1 to bath 4 from 1990 to 1993, providing help and mitigating the disaster for people without any compensation and funding. This continued until May 19, 1993, when the Ministry of Interior wrote a letter of compliment to Civil Defence Volunteer, stating that their work was “a good example which shows sacrifice and determination, other Civil Defence Volunteer should take this as a guideline for operation.” After that, Lampang City Municiplaity allowed Civil Defence Volunteer to use the public service building as their third center of disaster mitigation. Under the responsibility/management of Lampang City Municipality, the “Civil Defence Volunteer Foundation of Lampang City Municipality” was established on February 13, 1994.
City Pillar (Lak Muang) Shrine is located in front of Lampang City Hall, towards the southwest side. The city pillar is made of teakwood—speculated to exist since 100 yeas ago. The three city pillars were built in 1857, 1873, and 1886, respectively. Once the city hall was constructed in 1897, these city pillars were placed in front of the city hall. The mondop (a pillared outdoor pavilion) was then created on top of all three pillars in 1968. The shrine opens everyday from 6am to 5pm.
Phra Phuttha Nirarokhantarai Chaiwat Chaturathit is located in front of Lampang City Hall, close to the City Pillar Shrine. This Buddha image is enshrined in Thai-style mondop with four gable ends. The Buddha image has the posture of meditation and is made of metal combined with black oxide, resulting in the name Luang Po Dum to some local people. Four Buddha images were built by the Territorial Defense Department in 1968 to be placed in four directions of the country. Buddha image of the North was given to Lampang Province, and is now considered an auspicious object of worship among the locals. Today, this Buddha image is nearly covered with gold leaves by people who came to pay respect.
Ratsadaphisek Bridge or the White Bridge is on Ratsada Road. At that time, the town ruler of Lampang chose this name to commemorate King Rama V’s Accession to the Throne Ceremony. Ratsada Bridge was contemporary with the era of rail transport, and survived the bomb attack of the Allies during World War I and II by camouflage painting, supported by the claim of Mrs. Lucy Scarling (the former director of Vijjanari School, and Advisor of the Allies at that time), who affirmed that the bridge had no strategic use for the country. Originally, it was a wooden bridge supported by steel, which eventually collapsed. The renovation was completed in March 1917, using concrete and iron to ensure long-term solid structure. The bridge has the logo of a white cock, and the Royal Garuda Emblem at the bridgehead. The biggest morning market in Lampang, Ratsada Market, is just before Ratsadaphisek Bridge.
Wat Phra Kaew Don Tao is on Suchada Road, Wiang Nuea sub-district. It is a beautiful ancient temple—believed to be 1,000 years old—where Phra Phuttha Maha Mani Ratana Patimakon (The Emerald Buddha) was enshrined from 1436 to 1404, or for well over 32 years. The temple’s name came from a legend in which a monk found an emerald inside a watermelon (or mak-tao in Northern Thai dialect). The emerald was then carved into the Buddha image and placed in Wat Phrathat Lampang Luang until today.
Sacred places inside Wat Phra Kaew Don Tao include a massive pagoda containing the Buddha’s hair (Phra Barommathat Don Tao), and a viharn housing the reclining Buddha that is as old as the temple. Furthermore, there are viharn of the Buddha image with the attitude of subduing Mara, and Viharn Phrajao Thongtip built by Queen Chamdhevi which houses a 1,000-year-old Buddha figure in Chiang Saen style, as well as a mondop decorated in Burmese architectural design. Situated within the same premise is Viharn Lai Kam (The Gilded Assembly Hall) Suchadaram built by Chiang Saen craftsmen and decorated with mural paintings of beautiful and delicate golden patterns. This viharn houses a Buddha figure in Chiang Saen style. There is also Lanna Museum, which collects Lanna artifacts such as Sattaphan (Lanna-style holder for seven candles), porcelains, and the Buddha images.
Wat Pong Sanuk
Wat Pong Sanuk can be found in Pong Sanuk village, Wiang Nuea Sub-district, Muang District, Lampang Province. It is an important temple of Lampang Province, speculated to be built during the reign of King Anantayod, the son of Queen Chamdhevi of Hariphunchai (present-day Lamphun Province) when she visited Khelang Nakhon (present-day Lampang Province) in the year 680. However, this is merely an unsubstantiated speculation which lacks historical evidence. Nevertheless, Wat Pong Sanuk was at the center of Khelang Nakhon II. The oldest evidence mentioned Wat Pong Sanuk in 1386, when the temple was then entitled “Wat Chiang Phum.” This temple was used by Meun Lok Nakhon, a soldier commissioned to protect Khelang Nakon, to defend the invasion of Ayutthaya Army. Four hundred years after that, the temple’s name was changed to “Wat Pong Sanuk” and it was divided into the northern and southern sides. The evidence can be found in the ancient palm leaf manuscript of Wat Phu Mintr, Nan Province, as it mentioned the celebration of “Wat Pong Sanuk Tai (tai means ‘southern’ in Thai)” during 1809 and 1859. From the note of Kruba Arnochai Thamma Jinda Muni, the former provincial chief prelate, there was a renovation of a small hill that was built as a replica of the mythical Mount Meru at Wat Pong Sanuk Nuea (nuea means ‘northern’ in Thai). In 1886, 27 years after the renovation, Wat Pong Sanuk underwent major renovation to restore the pagoda and build multi-tiered umbrellas, the arched entrance, and Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong. This was followed by the celebration where 300 monks were invited to receive alms.
From written records, the temple previously had four names, including Wat Sri Jomkhlai, Wat Chiang Phum, Wat Don Kaew and Wat Phayao. Pong Sanuk is the most recent name found in the records since 1809, at the earliest. For over 200 years, the temple names Wat Phayao and Wat Pong Sanuk were related to the history of displacement during the time when King Kawila attacked Chiang Saen in 1803. At that time, Chiang Saen belonged to the Burmese army. The king then gathered Chiang Saen people, including those in Pong Sanuk village, as well as residents of Phayao to settle in the city of Lampang in order to flee the war with the Burmese. These people took up residence along the banks of Wang River around Wat Chiang Phum’s area and named this new community after the original village. Later in 1843, Chao Luang Mahawong rebuilt the city of Phayao, which led people to migrate back to their city of birth. However, some chose to stay with people from Pong Sanuk village, hence, the names of the temple and the village have thus remained “Pong Sanuk" until today.
According to the elderly in the community, Wat Pong Sanuk was next to the wall of inner Khelang Nakhon, surrounded by levee and moat. The moat behind the temple was deep and full of lotuses. There was a tradition of digging the ground to fill the area around Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong, believing that the houses of those who failed to comply would be flooded. The assumption matches the archaeological excavation in Mon Doi in May 2008, which discovered the layer of sand from the river 30-centimeter deep under the cement ground. When delved deeper, the layer of bricks with the height of 7 meters was found. This revealed the use of Mon Doi construction technique using bricks of the Lanna culture for the first time in Thailand. In front of the temple was a big marsh, not too far from Wang River, and was the location of the royal residence Khum Chao Ratchawong and Chaomae Suk Na Lampang. Today, a giant rain tree of nearly 150 years old can be seen in front of Wat Pong Sanuk Tai. There was a story about Kruba Thammachai, a monk on pilgrimage who stayed under the rain tree in Chiang Tung in 1868. He brought the seed and planted it next to the big marsh in front of the temple. Even though the marsh no longer exists today, the rain tree has grown over a long period of time to provide the shade for people.
The prosperity of Wat Pong Sanuk is portrayed in the art and architecture inside the temple such as pagoda, the Reclining Buddha Viharn, and Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong. “Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong” is open on all sides and has a cruciform floor plan where four large porches of equal length protrude out of the structure. This 120-year-old viharn has a beautiful structure, which inspires other buildings in Thailand such as the pavilion in Mae Fah Luang Art & Culture Park, Chiangrai Province. Nowadays, Wat Pong Sanuk contains many precious artifacts, including the Wooden Buddha image found inside the room under the roof of Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong, mythology painting about Vessantara on fabrics and sa paper, ancient Tripitaka chest, and a large White Elephant Flag from the reign of King Rama VI. They are exhibited in Thammattananurak Anusorn Museum of Tripitaka Chest and Wat Pong Sanuk Museum (in the Northern side).
As Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong is over 120 years old, the structure required restoration. Hence, Wat Pong Sanuk organized “Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong Restoration Project” since 2001, which was profoundly supported by people across different disciplines including scholars, students, public organizations and other institutions, Buddhist monks, photographers, and the pious. The purpose of restoring Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong was to preserve the patterns, construction techniques, and material of ancient craftsmanship. The work, which lasted over 4 years, was the collaboration between Pong Sanuk village and the working group for cultural heritage conservation, in both abstract and concrete dimensions, to create various relevant activities as follows.
- Studied historical information, architecture, art and environment, belief, state of repair, materials, and restoration approach
- Took photo, cleaned the site, recorded details, and registered different ancient artifacts such as the Wooden Buddha image, ancient Tripitaka chest, mondop, mythology painting on fabrics and Sa paper—repaired the building to create Museum of Tripitaka Chest at Wat Pong Sanuk (Northern side) and Thammattananurak Anusorn Museum of Tripitaka Chest (Southern side)
- Organized a workshop for the restoration of Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong through the collaboration of Thai Art Department, Faculty of Fine Arts, Chiang Mai University; Faculty of Architecture and Decorative Arts, Silpakorn University; Architecture Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Chiangrai Rajabhat University; and establishing an institution for Lanna arts and culture (Tai) project, Phayao Naresuan University
- Held a photography exhibition and publicized the restoration work of Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong, as well as travelled to different provinces under “The little man with conservation” project
Meanwhile, the traditions and rituals from the past have been revived. This attracts much interest from both the public and private sectors inside and outside Lampang Province. Today, Pong Sanuk community has formed the network with Archeological Center of the Northern Region, Faculty of Humanities, Chiang Mai University, to preserve the arts of Mae Ta District in Lampang Province. This network has raised awareness on preserving local heritage for the clergy and the communities in Lampang.
In 2008, “Viharn Phra Chao Phan Ong Restoration Project” was selected from 45 projects in 13 countries to receive the Award of Merit for 2008 Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation, organized by the UNESCO. This award is not only the pride of Pong Sanuk community, but to all Thai people as an assiduous attempt to preserve national architectural and cultural heritage for the next generations.